PharmacyForward
Pharmacists and Population Health

Pharmacists and Population Health

February 18, 2021

Amanda Schartel, PharmD, BCACP - Clinical Pharmacy Specialist with ChristianaCare CareVio - talks with us about the roles and responsibilities of a population health pharmacist.

Key Lessons:

  • Population health involves holistically evaluating the health needs of a population and bringing together the resources and expertise needed to address those needs.
  • Population health teams often include practitioners that many patients in primary care settings don't ordinarily have access including social workers, respiratory therapists, and clinical pharmacists.
  • Sophisticated data analytics and remote monitoring tools help population health practitioners proactively identify patients who may need additional services or whose health status may be changing.
  • Patient encounters are often conducting using videoconferencing technology and text-messaging can quickly capture patient experience data. 
  • The role and responsibilities of the population health pharmacist often extend beyond what an ambulatory care pharmacist might address.
  • Population health pharmacists often have the authority to adjust medication regimens and order laboratory tests.
  • Residency training and board certification are not required but preferred for those seeking employment as a population health pharmacist. 
  • The key skill sets needed by a population health pharmacist include patient management experience addressing complex medication-related issues as well as a deep knowledge of quality metrics and value-based payment structures.
Pharmacists and Public Health

Pharmacists and Public Health

January 27, 2021

Rear Admiral (RADM) Pamela Schweitzer - retired Chief Professional Officer of Pharmacy for the United States Public Health Service (USPHS) - talks to us about the roles and responsibilities of pharmacists during a public health crisis.  Dr. Schweitzer was responsible for providing leadership and coordination of USPHS pharmacy programs for the Office of the Surgeon General and the Department of Health & Human Services from 2014-2018.

Key Lessons:

  • Pharmacists play a critical role in the USPHS because they have a unique skill set.
  • A pandemic, like COVID-19, requires a coordinated effort between the public and private sectors to address mass vaccination efforts as well as shortages of medications, testing, and personal protective equipment using an incident command structure.
  • USPHS pharmacists are deployed to the hardest-hit zones to provide medical and scientific assistance.  With the COVID-19 pandemic, USPHS officers have been helping set-up community testing and mass-vaccination sites as well as providing input on federal guidance impacting pharmacists and pharmacies.
  • Pharmacists in the USPHS must wear many hats. While formal training is helpful, getting a wide breadth of on-the-job experiences is critical.
  • Be curious. Learn new skills in every position/job. Be flexible and positive. Be comfortable with shifting conditions. Step up, speak up, and volunteer.  Act when you can.  Be a role model.
  • If you'd like to get more involved, consider volunteering with your local Medical Reserve Corps , applying to become a Commissioned Officer in the USPHS or the newly formed USPHS Ready Reserve Corps.
Social Media to Make Professional Connections (II)

Social Media to Make Professional Connections (II)

July 8, 2020

Ashley Barlow, PharmD (MD Anderson Cancer Center) & Brooke Barlow, PharmD (University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center) - @theABofPharmaC and PGY2 Pharmacy Practice Residents - talk to us about developing their professional brand using Twitter and why creating an online presence can help you achieve your career goals.

Key Lessons:

  • Social media, especially Twitter, has become an increasingly important forum for connecting with professional colleagues and engaging in dialog about cutting edge issues that impact patient care and pharmacy practice.
  • To get started, read this brief article by Robert Pugliese entitled How Twitter Has Made Me a Better Pharmacist.
  • Consider maintaining separate professional and personal social media accounts.
  • Instagram, Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter are the most commonly used social media platforms for professional networking purposes.
  • Everyone should purposefully develop their professional brand online.  Your digital footprint ultimately reflects your reputation.
  • Your online persona is perhaps the first and most important impression that others with have of you.
  • Think about the ABCDEs of your social media presence. A - align your social media with your professional goals.  B - build your profile with a professional bio and photo.  C - curate the content you find interesting and important.  D - define your audience.  E - engage in conversations ... be sure to like, comment, and retweet!
  • Your online network through social media can lead to many new opportunities.

Get the Social Media Infographic by Ashley and Brooke Barlow (@theABofPharmaC)

Social Media to Make Professional Connections (I)

Social Media to Make Professional Connections (I)

June 3, 2020

Dave L. Dixon, PharmD, BCACP, BCPS, CDE, CLS  - Virginia Commonwealth University School of Pharmacy and - Brent N. Reed, PharmD, BCPS, BCCP  - University of Maryland School of Pharmacy - talk with us about using social media for professional development and staying current with the latest evidence to support your practice.

Key Lessons:

  • Social media includes a wide range of online applications intended to interact with other users in a public setting.
  • Social media, especially Twitter, has become an increasingly important forum for connecting with professional colleagues and engaging in dialog about cutting edge issues that impact patient care and pharmacy practice.
  • Social media use should be done in a systematic, thoughtful way - you need to decide what your goals are, who to follow, and how frequently to check your social media feeds.
  • Being a passive recipient of social media posts (aka being a "lurker") is a great way to get started but eventually, you may wish to share and comment on content you find valuable ... as well as create your own original content.
  • Learning how to curate your social media feed can help prevent information overload.
  • Following a professional conference (and the people attending) on Twitter can enhance the conference experience and enable those who are not able to attend the conference to learn about what's happening.
  • Engaging in social media can be personally and professionally rewarding.  Share your personality!  It should be fun.

Get the Social Media Infographic by Ashley and Brooke Barlow (@theABofPharmaC)

Expanding the Frontiers of Pharmacy Practice (III)

Expanding the Frontiers of Pharmacy Practice (III)

May 5, 2020

Casey Tak, PhD, MPH - University of North Carolina Eschelman School of Pharmacy and - Karen Gunning, PharmD, BCPS, BCACP - University of Utah College of Pharmacy - talk with us about hormonal contraception and how pharmacists in community and ambulatory care settings can increase women's access to care.

Key Lessons:

  • A variety of contraceptive methods have been available through pharmacies for decades but many states now permit pharmacists to directly "provide" hormonal contraception without a prescription.
  • A state-wide standing order is the most common mechanism for authorizing pharmacists to provide hormonal contraception directly to patients, but state laws and regulations vary.
  • The CDC Guidance for Healthcare Providers - US Medical Eligibility Criteria do not require a woman to have a pelvic exam prior to receiving hormonal contraception. The pharmacist needs to ask about and document the patient's medical and medication history, take the patient's blood pressure, and inquire about contraceptive preferences before providing hormonal contraception.
  • Some states require pharmacists to refer patients to a primary care provider to receive recommended preventive care, such as pelvic exams, breast exams, and Pap smears.  Even when this is not required by state law, it's a best practice to ensure all women are receiving appropriate health maintenance services.
  • Insurance coverage for pharmacist-provided hormonal contraception is not universal - many private insurance plans do not cover the cost of hormonal contraception or compensate for the pharmacist's time.  However, Medicaid programs often do (varies by state).
  • Increasing access to hormonal contraception is good public policy because it can positively impact Medicaid costs by reducing unintended pregnancies, high-risk pregnancies, and infant mortality.
  • Student pharmacists can (and have) played an important role in advocating for pharmacist-provided hormonal contraction.
Expanding the Frontiers of Pharmacy Practice (II)

Expanding the Frontiers of Pharmacy Practice (II)

April 16, 2020

Kristin Wiisanen, PharmD - Clinical Professor and Director of the Graduate Program in Precision Medicine at the University of Florida College of Pharmacy - talks with us about using genomics to guide therapeutic decisions.

Key Lessons:

  • Precision medicine and personalized medicine are synonymous terms.
  • Pharmacogenomics is a tool to personalize treatment decisions.  However, it is not the only tool.  Other readily available and routinely collected clinical information has been used to personalize therapy for decades (e.g. blood type, serum creatinine, CV risk score).
  • While creating a separate pharmacogenomic service can help ease practitioners into using pharmacogenomic tests, learning how to integrate genetic information as a routine part of clinical decision-making is the ultimate goal.
  • Pharmacists have a unique role (and responsibility) to know when and how to use the results of pharmacogenomic tests.
  • Teaching students, residents, and fellows to use pharmacogenomic information should be done in an integrated manner - considered alongside other clinical data, not in isolation.
  • Several excellent resources now exist that can assist pharmacists and other providers use the results of pharmacogenomic tests including the Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base (PharmGKB) and the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guidelines.
Expanding the Frontiers of Pharmacy Practice (I)

Expanding the Frontiers of Pharmacy Practice (I)

March 20, 2020

Lucas Berenbrok, PharmD, BCACP, TTS - Assistant Professor of Pharmacy and Therapeutics at the University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy - talks with us about hearing loss and the important role pharmacists can play as OTC hearing aids become available in 2020.

Key Lessons:

  • Most older adults have some degree of hearing loss and it can significantly impact the quality of life
  • There are many causes of hearing loss including medications, infections, cerumen, and aging
  • A screening exam for hearing impairment is part of the Welcome to Medicare Exam, but hearing aids are not covered by Medicare.
  • OTC hearing aids are predicted to be a far more affordable option for patients with mild-to-moderate hearing loss.
  • Pharmacists have an important role in assessing patients and referring them to an audiologist for hearing exams.
  • Pharmacists can assist patients select an appropriate OTC hearing aid
  • To find an audiologist: American Academy of Audiology
Gender Identity & Transgender Care (III)

Gender Identity & Transgender Care (III)

February 18, 2020

Cheyenne C. Newsome, PharmD, BCACP and Jessica Conklin, PharmD, BCACP, CDE, AAHIV — passionate advocates for the role of pharmacists in the care of transgender persons — talk with us about the need for patient and provider education and about the benefits and risks of gender-affirming treatment.

Key Lessons:

  • Gender-affirming therapy is highly effective, improving the quality of life in more than 80% of patients.
  • Hormonal therapy is the cornerstone of gender-affirming therapy. 
  • Testosterone is used for masculinization by trans-men.  It is traditionally given by intramuscular injection but subcutaneous injections are easier to administered and may have a smoother effect (e.g. lower peak effect). 
  • Side effects from testosterone are common including body and facial hair growth (you don't get to pick!), deepened voice (irreversible), clitoral enlargement, acne, menstrual irregularities, and weight gain from increased appetite.
  • Estradiol (preferred estrogen) is used for feminization by trans-women. In addition, spironolactone is used in high doses for its anti-androgen effects.  Side effects are similar to those experienced by cisgender women.
  • While trans-men often develop amenorrhea, pregnancy is still possible.  Frank discussions about the use of contraception, if sexually active, is important.
  • A number of great resources are available to inform drug therapy decision making particularly the Endocrine Society Guidelines.
  • Pharmacists can uniquely contribute to optimizing the care of trans-men and -women.

To learn more, view and download the Show Notes!

Gender Identity & Transgender Care (II)

Gender Identity & Transgender Care (II)

January 21, 2020

Abby Frye, PharmD, BCACP, Dawn Fuke, PharmD, BCPS, and Justin Bachman, PharmD, BCACP — Clinical Pharmacist Specialists in Primary Care from the Providence Medical Group in Portland, Oregon — talk with us about creating gender-affirming care environments.

Key Lessons:

  • Current estimates suggest that about 1 million adults in Adults in the United States don't identify with the gender assigned to them at birth  - but this is likely an underestimate.
  • Transgender and gender non-conforming individuals face enormous and persistent stigma within our (and many other) cultures.
  • Social stigma is associated with higher rates of anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders.
  • Health professionals have a responsibility to take pro-active steps to counteract the discrimination that patients from vulnerable and marginalized populations face.
  • Self-awareness and self-examination about communication practices are critical - this includes the information collected on patient intake forms and electronic health records as well as a patient's preferred name and pronoun. 
  • Insurance coverage for gender-affirming therapies as well as health screening exams for transgender persons are sometimes denied and health professionals may need to advocate for coverage.
  • A wide variety of resources are available to health professionals to learn more about the care of transgender and gender non-conforming individuals.

To learn more, view and download the Show Notes!

Gender Identity & Transgender Care (I)

Gender Identity & Transgender Care (I)

December 17, 2019

Nicole Avant, PharmD, BCACP - Assistant Professor at the University of Cincinnati and Founder/CEO of Avant Consulting Group - and Tennille McKinney - HIV Educator and Consultant with Avant Consulting Group - talk with us about gender expression/identity, cis-privilege, and transphobia.

Key Lessons:

  • Sex and gender are not synonymous.  Sex is based on biology and gender is a social construct. Sex is determined by genes and assigned at birth. Gender is influenced by cultural norms and internal sense of self.
  • Transgender persons identify with a gender that is different from the sex that was assigned at birth.  Cis-gender persons identify with the gender that is congruent with the sex assigned at birth.
  • Some transgender persons, but certainly not all, seek medical and/or surgical gender-affirming treatments to express their gender identity.
  • Cis-privilege includes the rights and advantages that cis-gender persons enjoy.  This includes respect for one's gender identity and freedom from harassing comments or intrusive questioning.
  • Deadnaming is the act of referring to and calling someone by their birth name rather than their chosen name which is congruent with their current identity.
  • Transgender persons face social stigma from both the lay public and health professionals.  This sigma often results in transgender persons seeking care outside of traditional institutions and relying on self-care.

To learn more, view and download the Show Notes!

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